Across the Yangtze River and the Huai River, with different landforms and culture covering the features of the North and the South, Anhui has played an important role in the development of China’s civilization. The human history of Anhui may trace back to about two million years ago. The remains of the Stone Age show us a highly developed clan culture of Anhui. During the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, many states and tribes were here. The area was unified by the Chu State in the Warring States Period. The ritual-music system was strongly influenced by the Central Plain. The copper mining and smelting in Southern Anhui made great contribution to China’s Bronze Culture. In Anhui, there remain many relics of the Qin, Han, Wei and Jin dynasties. In the Han Dynasty, the economy, culture and technology reached an unprecedented height. During the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties, the convenient transport, represented by the Grand Canal, promoted the economic development in Anhui and the southeast of China and brought the national economic center to move southward. In the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, Huizhou merchants promoted the development of economy and culture, which laid a solid foundation for Huizhou culture. The Tongcheng Literary School which reached its apogee in the middle of the Qing Dynasty lent color to the history of Chinese letters. The exhibition introduces cultural relics, historical events and figures representing social development in different historical periods and explains the process of development of history and civilization in Anhui.